- our lab reports mimic the process because they lack background research
- our certainty in APES labs is limited by a lack of repetition and reproducibility, and by a lack of peer review
*also, for more on the full scientific method, here’s a diagram:
SO…WHAT CAN WE KNOW (be certain of)?
1) things we can disprove–we can’t always prove relationships and absolute truths, but we can disprove them
2) whether the relationships are causal or correlated–either they are just able to be associated or one actually determines the other (http://stats.org/faq_vs.htm)
3) theory–lots of backup (experiments, repetition)
4) law–accurate descriptions of phenomena with lots of backup
*for a clarification of theory vs. law, here is a good website http://www.wilstar.com/theories.htm
SO…HOW CAN WE KNOW?
- good experimental design–> controlled experiment (manipulating variables)–> observational experiments (just observing events occur and drawing reasonable conclusions)